Biomass is any organic matter that can be used as an energy source, including trees, palm shell, timber waste, wood chips, corn, rice hulls, peanut shells, coconut shell, bagasse, grass clippings, leaves, manure, agricultural wastes, and municipal solid waste.
There are several methods to convert biomass into electricity.
Biomass power plants use the chemical energy of biomass fuels such as rice husk and bark to produce electricity, that is, the chemical energy of fuels → the thermal potential of steam → mechanical energy → electrical energy. In a boiler, chemical energy is converted into thermal energy of steam by fuel combustion. In a steam turbine, thermal energy of steam is converted into mechanical energy of rotation of the wheel, and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy in the generator.
The biomass is converted into a gaseous fuel in a gasifier, and after purification, it directly enters the gas engine to generate electricity or directly enters the fuel cell to generate electricity. One of the key technologies of gasification power generation is gas purification. The gas produced by gasification contains certain impurities, including ash, coke and tar. It needs to be removed by the purification system to ensure the normal operation of the power generation equipment.
The use of biogas generated by anaerobic fermentation of large amounts of organic waste in industrial, agricultural, or urban life drives generator sets to generate electricity.
If the syngas is pure, it can be utilized in fuel cells for electricity production.